This suggests that it is not the type of mathematics problem that is important in evaluating sex differences but the kind of strategy required to solve it that is critical in determining whether males or females have ability. For example, deficits in naming colors, common objects, and numbers consistently characterize reading disability Denckla and Rudel, ; Wolf, ; Wolf and Goodglass, Comparison of the limb pain thresholds in men and women showed no differences between the men and nondysmenorrheic women, regardless of the time of the month, but did show a higher threshold for both groups compared with that for the dysmenorrheic women. This includes interest in babies Leveroni and Berenbaum, , reported likelihood of using aggression in conflict situations Berenbaum and Resnick, , and spatial ability Hampson et al. Indeed, females with CAH do differ from their sisters in sex-typed behavior for a detailed description, see Berenbaum .
Among the mechanisms underlying the organizational concept are that the development of particular behaviors can be mediated and affected by a number of postnatal environmental experiences Moore and Rogers, ; reviewed by Fausto-Sterling . In canaries and zebra finches, for example, differences in singing behavior between males and females have been correlated with differences in the sizes of three vocal control areas in the brain Nottebohm and Arnold, , but, importantly, the young male bird must hear the adult male song to initiate its own repertoire. This review summarizes social and ethical commentaries on the new relationship between sex and reproduction. Cognitive abilities can be subdivided and considered in any number of ways. Within Christianity, reactions were much diversified: Throughout life, there are profound sex differences in the brain's responsiveness to sex hormones, some of which are established early in development and which have implications for later behavior, including cognitive function. It is not yet known why some individuals with male-typical prenatal hormone levels develop female-typical gender identity when they are reared as females but others develop male-typical gender identity in that environment. Synthesis of the findings from the literature on hormonal influences on cognitive function and from the literature on reading has led to the novel hypothesis that hormones, specifically estrogen, influence phonological processing, which in turn influences the development of verbal fluency, speech production, and reading skills. Reliable sex differences have also been reported for spelling, another verbal ability closely related to reading; however, reports of sex differences in other areas of verbal ability such as vocabulary or reading comprehension have been inconsistent and are not considered reliable Hampson and Kimura, Possible Mechanisms Influencing Effects of Estrogen on Cognitive Functions Is it reasonable to suppose that estrogen may have salutary effects on certain cognitive abilities? Sex reassignment was requested, and the individual is now reported to live successfully and happily as a man. Thus, boys outscore girls 2: Specifically a review of religious attitudes toward the new horizons of human reproduction is fundamental to the understanding of an evolving human sexuality, because, by and large, religions continue to oppose change in how humans view sexuality. Islam took, from the beginning, a positive position: However, even when one controls for the number of advanced mathematics courses, males continue to have an advantage, albeit a much smaller one Meece et al. Ongoing studies with boys with cloacal exstrophy malformed or absent penis with normal testes who are reared as girls should help to provide systematic evidence about the determinants and malleability of gender identity. In some species, male-typical development results from estradiol metabolized from androgen in the brain, although aromatized estrogens do not appear to play a role in masculinizing the human brain or behavior Grumbach and Auchus, More specifically, prior studies had indicated different patterns of neural organization for memory in older men and women compared with those in younger men and women. No single factor produces sex differences in any one behavioral or cognitive trait, let alone in all of them. Mechanisms by Which Androgens Affect Behavior Although there is good evidence that at least some of the sex differences in behavior are influenced by the prenatal androgens operating on the developing brain, it is not at all clear how that happens. Although some might argue that the pendulum has swung too much in favor of genes and physiology Fausto-Sterling, , there is considerable interest in examining the joint effects of genes, physiology, and experiences. In particular, the mental rotation task has demonstrated the most sensitivity at detecting sex differences in spatial ability Sanders et al. While human males invest heavily in their offspring as well, their minimum parental investment is still lower than that of females. Finding the answers to these questions provides an opportunity to integrate hormonal explanations for behavioral sex differences with other explanations and to arrive at a more complete understanding of why males and females differ in their behavioral characteristics. There are now many documented sex differences in a wide range of species, including primates Forger, Some of the anatomical, physiological, and biochemical changes resulting from the early organizational effects of hormones have been revealed, particularly in the central nervous system Breedlove, ; Gorski et al.
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